BGT：What inspired you to be a roaster in coffee industry?
Peter：There were two steps in this. Firstly back in 1998 I had my first cup of Specialty Coffee which really opened my eyes. Before having tasted Specialty Coffee when some one said ‘oh this is a nice cup of coffee’ I couldn’t really remember it to be so much better than the other coffees I had tasted. But in 1998 I by luck got a job at Dromedar Kaffebar in Bergen, Norway who had Specialty Coffee from Solberg & Hansen. They gave me the first tasting of Specialty Coffee and the flavour impressions made a huge impact on me. There were so many different flavours in the coffees from the different countries that Solberg & Hansen had roasted, that a new world opened up to me. From this experience I was ‘hooked on Specialty Coffee’. After I came back from Norway to Denmark I was hired at Estate Coffee to open the Estate Coffee Shop. This was the next step towards becoming a roaster. At that time all Estate Coffee was wage roasted at a larger Roasting Company. We at Estate Coffee worked a lot with the Roasting Company, but it was a hard time getting them to roast as we preferred. Luckily the Roasting Company was sold to an even bigger Swedish Roasting company at the same time as I was finished with my university studies. Therefore we decided to open our own Roastery where I became the roastmaster. So my way into roasting was partly a few lucky circumstances and partly the impression that Solberg & Hansens coffees had given me.
第一階段要回溯到1998年，我的精品咖啡初體驗讓我大開眼界。在這以前當我聽到有人說：『喔，這是一杯好咖啡』的時候，我都無法體會這杯咖啡跟我以前喝過的有什麼不同，好在哪裡？有多好？但是1998年我很幸運地能夠在挪威卑爾根的Dromedar Kaffebar任職，這裡有Solberg & Hansen烘焙公司所配合供應的精品咖啡。Dromedar給予了我對精品咖啡的第一次品嚐經驗與風味印象，這對於我來說影響相當大。Solberg & Hansen烘焙的精品咖啡所呈現的不同產地風貌，真正為我開啟了一個新的咖啡領域。這段工作經驗讓我開始沈醉在精品咖啡的世界。
後來我回到丹麥受雇於Estate Coffee，這是第二個階段，我開始往烘焙工作前進。在那時Estate Coffee所有的咖啡都交由另一家較大型的烘焙公司處理，但是畢竟不能主導烘焙出我們所喜歡的咖啡類型。很湊巧地後來這家公司被瑞典的另一家大公司購併了，在同時我也完成了我的大學課業，因此我們當下決定開設屬於自己的烘焙廠，而由我總管烘焙作業。所以，我的烘焙之路有部分是因為幸運的機遇，有部分則要歸功於S&H的啟蒙。
BGT：Please describe the espresso blend that your company won 1st place in the World Barista Championship in 2006?
Peter：The espressoblend that Klaus and I made for his presentation at WBC 2006 came from a wish to make an espresso with less bitterness and more pure coffee aroma. Klaus came in 3rd in WBC 2004 and since that day we started preparing for his presentation two years later. At that time we had La Minita from Tarrazu in Costa Rica in our coffee menu at Estate Coffee and we were very impressed by the cleanliness and pure coffee aroma from this coffee. The problem was that the acidity got too sharp when prepared for espresso and the body not intense enough. Therefore we started looking out for some coffee that was not washed to supplement the La Minita. The big challenge was that we wanted to roast very light to avoid unnecessary bitterness and carbony tones. But when we roasted this light all the defects showed themselves much clearer in the cup. So we needed to find a coffee that was not washed but was still very clean in the coffee flavour. This was really difficult! After we had tried a lot of coffees none of them clean enough we traveled to Cerrado in Brazil to the Daterra farm. We cupped a lot of their very nice coffees and afterwards we brewed them as espresso. When we came to the Daterra Sweet Collection in the espresso cupping we were astonished – this coffee had a tremendous sweetness and body but still it was very clean. It was that sweet and creamy in the mouthfeel that it almost seem like drinking a kind of pure coffee cream (not anything like Baileys!)! So we had found our not washed coffee in the Pulped Natural Daterra Sweet Collection. But as with a good dessert the sweet cream is best combined with a fresh and aromatic flavour. In this way we combined the Daterra and La Minita coffees to get a very sweet and clean espresso with a creamy mouthfeel from Daterra and liveliness and delicate aromas from La Minita. Of course developing the right roasting strategy for this coffee was at least as long a story. In short we roasted the beans separately because they were both so refined in their own way that roasting them together made no point. We roasted them very light only to the beginning of the second pop (La Minita a bit longer into the second pop).
我與Klaus在研發2006 WBC blend的時候，發想重點是最少的苦味和最多的純淨香味。自從Klaus在2004年得到WBC季軍開始，我們立刻投入準備工作達二年之久。在當時Estate Coffee已經開始販售La Minita，我們對它的潔淨質感和純粹香氣都留下極深刻的印象。問題是在espresso上的表現酸味太過銳利，而body強度不足，所以我們開始尋找別的非水洗豆來與La Minita做互補。這是個大挑戰，因為我們希望烘焙度非常淺，來避免不必要的苦味與碳味，但是通常那麼淺的烘焙度也會讓所有風味缺陷更清楚地呈現到杯子裡。所以我們不只需要一個非水洗咖啡，還要同時具備乾淨風味的特性。這真的很難。在一連串的選擇嘗試之後，都失敗在潔淨度不夠。最後來到巴西Cerrado區的Daterra農莊，我們杯測了許多好豆子，並且也用espresso沖煮來測試。Daterra Sweet Collection在杯測過程中的表現令我們驚嘆，它不但有驚人的甜度與厚重body，也具備了非常乾淨的質感，整個香甜奶油般的口腔觸感，就像喝到一種純淨的咖啡乳脂。所以我們總算找到我們所要的豆子，那就是Pulped Natural Daterra Sweet Collection。一般在甜點製作上，用甜味奶油來結合新鮮、芳香的味道會是個好方法。我們也用這種方式來結合這二種咖啡，得到又甜又乾淨的espresso，不但有著Daterra乳脂般的觸感，也兼具La Minita細緻又充滿活力的香氣。當然，開發出正確的烘焙對策這段過程是漫長的，總之我們採取的是分開烘焙再混合的方式，Daterra的落點在二爆剛開始，Minita則是進的更深一點點。
BGT：What advice and tips do you have for a roaster who just getting start?
Peter：Get good a cupping! In my point of view cupping is fundamental for every roaster. When you know how to cup you can evaluate what you are doing at the roaster and then get better from experimenting with blends, roast profiles and strategies.
BGT：You are a great roaster and also a well experienced barista, what kind of ability do you think a roaster should have? And how to learn? And how a roaster communicate with a barista?
Peter：This is really a difficult question – I think that you need a lot of different skills to be a roaster. Cupping is fundamental but as a roaster it is also important to know your beans and your equipment. But I also think it is equally important to know your coffee colleagues! One of the great differences between coffee and other gourmet products especially like wine is that it is not ‘one house’ making the product. For instance in the wine business ‘the producer’ is often just ‘one house’ i.e. the Wine yard. And they more or less are entirely responsible for the quality that the consumer experiences. As a roaster you are ‘one house’ in the chain of people contributing to the quality that the consumer experiences. If you as a roaster want’s to give the consumer a good experience you are dependent on the other people in the coffee chain to also work for the same goal. Therefore you should also at best make personal relations to the baristas brewing your coffee and the farmers growing your coffee. In the long run I believe this will be the best way to secure an ongoing qualitative development of Specialty Coffee.
BGT：What kind of single overriding flavor in the espresso is the worst? And what kind of flavor is your priority choice?
Peter：Of course you can sometimes find defects that are very unpleasant but except of these to much roasty bitterness is for me killing the nice experience of espresso. If the espresso is very bitter the nice natural fragile aromas are gone and the acidity is usually also gone.
BGT：Which one is your favorite single origin coffee? Did you use it as one of your espresso blend?
Should espresso blend designed for different purpose, for example: straight shot or for cappa? Can a espresso designed for dual-used blend？
Peter：As coffee for French press I am a huge Kenya fan! Especially the intense floral aromas but also the crisp acidity and powerfull body of good Kenyan coffee is to me unique!
Personally I think you do not need to make different espressoblends for different purpose. I prefer to have an espresso that is perfect as a straight shot because this will also be good in cappuccinoes. But I know that a lot of people do not agree on this and especially a lot of cafe or coffee shop owners tend to prefer a coffee that is still strong even though they put half a liter of milk on top of a single shot. Generally I believe that if you have good baristas you will get extracted a lot of flavour and this will go nicely through the milk. If people want a coffee with half a liter of milk it is because they don’t like the taste of the coffee! All that said of course people have different flavour preferences also your customers and therefore you might need to have different espressoblends to suit their preferences.
BGT：We know Estate Coffee is a famous micro-roastery, coffee shop and wholesaler and you guys won great reputations，could you give some suggestion for the roaster in Taiwan?
Peter：Make sure that the management have well defined ideas of where to go with specialty coffee – what are the ambitions, the goals and the strategies. I believe David Schomer said that whatever idea the management/owner of your business have regarding specialty coffee it will work its way through the business, so you might as well make it very clear for what reason your in it! Is it a passionate drive for the love of coffee or is it because there seems to be good profits in specialty coffee or something in between? And then finally a good dialog with and respect for the people who are standing daily with their hands on the coffee is essential, because they are the ones making the quality!
BGT：In your concept, what is “slow roast” and how to define? What’s the benefit of a espresso blend from slow roast?
Peter：Well I guees the general concept of slowroast is related to the overall time the coffee stays in the roaster and it would probably generally be between 10 and 20 minutes. Just from that definition you cannot say anything general regarding the cup quality. You need to look at the roast profile more closely. You need to find the right development speed for different stages of the roast. The most important being the time from the 1st pop end until you take the coffee out of the roaster. If this is done good you will get a lot more sweetness, more distinct fragile aromas and a harder bean than if you “speedroast”. The phases before 1st pop and also the cooling phase is important to control as well – if your cooling time is too long you can still bake the coffee even though you did a perfect roast from 1st pop until you took it out of the roaster.
BGT：How about The 2006 WBC champion effect Estate coffee? In business point view, did you think a roaster company should attend WBC?
Peter：The 2006 WBC Championship gave some media attention to Estate which also hade an effect on the sales. This hopefully never should be the sole motivation for attending the WBC, but of course there is a potential marketing effect I gaining such a title. Even though the news value of a Danish World Barista Champion is quite worn out these years;-)
2006 WBC冠軍為Estate Coffee帶來一些說大不大，說小也不小的關注，這也多少有一些銷售上作用。我當然希望這不會是參加WBC唯一的動機，儘管得到這個頭銜的確會有一個潛在的銷售效應。何況丹麥拿冠軍的新聞價值在這幾年已經消耗殆盡了